Until June 30, 2020, the Domain Registration Policy only apply to the so-called document-based domain application. The essence of this is that the application and the most important changes (eg name change, transfer, registrar change) can only be made on the basis of a document. From 1 July 2020, the Regulations created an opportunity for the so-called confirmation procedure-based application, which results in a confirmation procedure-based domain, which provides simpler administration because the changes in domain data are confirmed by the registrant using his email address (and possibly phone number), no documents are required. However, this type of procedure is not yet provided by all registrars.
The essence of this is that when registering a domain or perform certain changes related to the domain, the applicants receive an email in which they find a link to a website and on this page accept the statements required for the application or approves the change. This is called a one-factor confirmation procedure.
If you choose the higher security, like the two-factor confirmation procedure, after the confirmation on the website, a code will be sent to your phone number by SMS or phone call, which you have to enter on the given page.
Email address and phone number are called factors.
The essential difference between the document based and confirmation procedure based domain is that in the case of the latter, the domain user (or somebody) has full control over the domain in the possession of the email address or, in the case of two-factor procedure, the email address and telephone number. E.g. the domain can be even transferred! Thus, it is especially important that the domain user takes special care to maintain the disposition over these factor data. For example, for natural person registrants, we do not recommend providing a work email address or phone number.
We’ve written about the domain registration process in detail here, but we’ll also summarize the most important information in this article.
The applicant must enter into a contract with a registrar to register and maintain the domain. This contracting can be done remotely, online or on a traditional, paper basis, in ways that the particular registrar offers to his clients.
The applicant must provide the registrar with certain data in accordance with reality (see Section 18.104.22.168 of the Domain Registration Policy, but due to the contract registrants may request additional data) depending on whether the applicant is a natural or legal person. Anyone who does not provide true information may have the process of registering the domain stalled or risk losing the domain they may have acquired later.
This is registrar dependent, but most likely the payment will follow and the registrar will submit the domain request to the Registry. The Registry will then initiate the confirmation process. In the case of a one-factor procedure (based on only one email address), the applicants will click on the link in the received email to a website where they can accept the statements required to apply for the domain and confirm their application. In the case of a two-factor procedure, you must also enter the code you received on your phone on the page.
After the confirmation procedure, the domain is usually registered in less than one day, while the Registry verifies the compliance of the applicant and the application with the Policy. Thereafter the right of use of the domain is granted conditionally to the applicant, of which the applicant is notified by the registrar. If no complaint is received about the registration within 8 days, the delegation will become final.
We write about the domain registration process in detail here.
Modifications to the data registered in connection with the domains are initiated by the registrant at the registrar. Registrars allow different ways to report a data change, e.g. customer portal, online customer service interface and the like.
In the case of domains registered under the confirmation procedure, the change of the most important data is approved by the registrant with the confirmation procedure. These data:
- in case of a natural person: name, number of the identity document, date of birth
- in case of a legal person or sole proprietor: name, tax number
- in all cases: factor data
Changes to the above data will be recorded in the registry by the registrar, after which the Registry will conduct the confirmation procedure with the registrant.
Data other than the above can be modified in a simple way without special approval procedures in the register. This information shall be modified by the registrar in the registry after the registrant notifies him:
- name server,
- postal address,
- administrative contact email address,
- in the case of a one-factor confirmation procedure-based registered domain: telephone number.
The registrant will be notified by email of any changes to this data in the registry. This is a security feature, no approval is required for these changes. The notification may be received from the registrar or the registry, at the discretion of the registrar. Domain users can opt out of this notification, but we do not recommend doing so.
Domain transfer (more specifically, the transfer of the right to use a domain) is discussed in detail in this article. The bottom line is that the new applicant (to whom the domain is transferred) enters into a domain maintenance contract with a registrar. The registrar submits the application (and the waiver/transfer statement, if any), to the register. If the application meets the conditions of the Policy, the Registry will carry out the confirmation procedure with the original registrant, during which the registrant may approve or even refuse the transfer.
If the new registrant has requested the domain with a confirmation procedure, the Registry will also carry out the confirmation procedure with the registrant.
It is easy to change the factor data, ie the e-mail address and, in the case of a two-factor procedure, the telephone number. As the registrant notifies the [fogalom fogalom=”Registrar”) about the changing factor data, the registrar enters the changes in the register, after which the Registry initiates a confirmation procedure first with the factor data to be changed and then with the new factor data.
Regarding what to do if a registrant has lost control of a factor, we’ll describe it below.
If someone loses control of one of the factors (for example, the e-mail address changes and they no longer have access to the old one, or in the same way in the case of a telephone number), the necessary actions are:
- the registrant is required to provide the new factor data (s) in a statement sent to the registrar at least in a private document providing conclusive evidence, the registrar shall forward the statement with the new data to the register,
- the Registry first initiates a confirmation procedure for the original factor(s), during which the registrant, if he still has control over these factors, can prohibit the requested factor data change,
- if the registrant does not prohibit the change of the factor data with the original factor or factors within 3 working days, the Registry shall initiate the confirmation procedure with the new factor data, during which the domain user may confirm or reject the change.
If you want to switch registrars, you will need to enter into a new domain maintenance agreement with your chosen new registrar for your domain. The new registrar submits the request to the register, and the Registry conducts a confirmation procedure with the you, during which you can approve the registrar change. The Registry then registers the registrar change. The contract with the previous registrar is automatically terminated.
A registrant of a domain registered on the basis of a confirmation procedure can also apply for the domain at the new registrar based on a document. In this case he has not only changed his registrar, but he is converting the domain registration from a confirmation procedure-based to a document based one. In this case, the migration process described below must take place in parallel with the conclusion of the contract with the registrar and the Registry will carry out the confirmation procedure with the registrant.
A domain registered with confirmation procedure can be converted by its registrant to a document based registered domain. In this case, the registrant must declare the transfer included in a private document providing conclusive evidence or in a notarized deed (including the electronically authenticated document). The statement must be sent by the registrant to the registrar and forwarded by the registrar to the register. The Registry then performs the confirmation procedure with the registrant.
It is possible to switch from a one-factor confirmation procedure to a two-factor confirmation procedure by the registrant requesting it from the registrar and giving the telephone number. The registrar forwards the request to the Registry and the Registry conducts the two-factor confirmation procedure with the registrant.
In the case of a change from a two-factor procedure to a one-factor procedure, both factors are checked.